BEGC 102 EUROPEAN CLASSICAL LITERATURE Solved Assignment 2022-23


Section A

Q.I Write short notes on the following in about 100 words each: 4 x 5 = 20

(i) Epic

An epic poem is a long, typically novel-length, poetic work. It is a type of narrative poem, which tells a story, typically in third-person point of view, through the typical conventions of poetry. The conventions include rhyme, meter, or some other aural device, and they are used to make the tale more engaging and memorable. Epics tend to follow a hero who represents a perfect citizen of their culture. These stories are of cultural, historical, and religious importance.

Epic poetry has roots in oral tradition, which predates the written word and was the way culture and history were preserved. Although a cuneiform version (character-based inscriptions) of The Epic of Gilgamesh was written between 1300 and 1000 BC, the story may have been told as early as 2150 BC. It was likely court singers who performed and passed down the story, preserving it until it finally appeared in written form. BEGC 102 EUROPEAN CLASSICAL LITERATURE Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BEGC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF , BEGC 102 Solved assignment pdf , BEGC 102 Solved Assignment ,  BEGC 102 Assignment , IGNOU BEGC 102 Assignment 2022-23.

The Trojan Epics

Homer, author of the epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey, was likely a court singer or a bard. Little is known about his personal history; some scholars hold that Homer couldn’t have been just one person. His epics brought to life the stories of the Trojan War, though certainly the adventures of Achilles and Odysseus were told long before 700 BC, the rough date of Homer’s works. Virgil, a Roman poet, took inspiration from the Homeric epics and penned The Aeneid, an epic poem in dactylic hexameter. It too told the story of the Trojan War and its aftermath. This is perhaps the first well-known epic that was first written, rather than an orally told story that was eventually passed down.

Other Early Epics

Epics are stories that distill entire histories and cultures into something tangible and engaging. They deal with themes and archetypes that everyone recognizes. With cultural pride, people could see themselves in the humanity of these poems’ heroes while aspiring to their divinity. The Mahābhārata is the longest poem in history. It tells the story of ancient India, the Kurukshetra War, and the fates of two families.

The poem started as a tale (or perhaps several) told to entertain audiences. It was recorded in Sanskrit around 400 BC and now stands as an important source of Hindu beliefs and history. The well-known Beowulf was a long-sung Germanic tale that found its way to the printed page between the 8th and 11th centuries.

It follows the life of the heroic Beowulf and his encounters with monsters on his way to becoming a king. Two of the most notable English epic poems are Paradise Lost by John Milton and Idylls of the King by Alfred Lord Tennyson, written in 1663 and 1885 respectively. Paradise Lost concerns the biblical creation and fall of man, while Tennyson’s epic recounts tales of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table.

(ii) Unity of Action

The dramatic unities are three: the unity of Action, the unity of Time, and the unity of Place. Ever since the Renaissance two reasons were advanced in support of the three unities. First, that Aristotle had enjoined them, and secondly, that they are necessary to create a dramatic illusion and in this way to make the drama credible and convincing. During the Pseudo-classical era, the unities were made into rigid rules and their observance was considered essential.

The Unity of Action

The three unities were deduced from Aristotle, but the Greek philosopher has stressed only one Unity, the unity of Action. The Action of tragedy, he says in The Poetics, must be a “complete whole”, and it must have, “organic unity”. Aristotle compares the plot of a tragedy to a living organism and says that just as in a living organism every part is harmoniously related to each other, and to the whole, so in tragedy also the various incidents and events must bear a proportionate and harmonious relationship. Just as in a living organism, no part is superfluous, and each part is essential for the life of the organism, and cannot be removed without causing injury to it, so also in the plot of a tragedy every events and every incident must be necessary essential. BEGC 102 EUROPEAN CLASSICAL LITERATURE Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BEGC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF , BEGC 102 Solved assignment pdf , BEGC 102 Solved Assignment ,  BEGC 102 Assignment , IGNOU BEGC 102 Assignment 2022-23.

There should be nothing superfluous, it should not be possible to take out any character or incident, without causing any injury to the plot. Digressions and episodes may be introduced, but then they should be integral to the plot, they must be made an integral part of the plot, and must contribute to the effect which the dramatist wants to create. It should not be possible even to transpose them, i.e., to shift them from one place to another.

Aristotle regards, “episodic plots as the worst”, for they are plots in which the episodes have not been properly interlinked with the main design, and do not form an organic part of the whole. Failure in episodizing is the worst fault, for it is a violation of the unity of Action. It is the unity of Action which makes the plot intelligible, coherent, and individual. There are a number of incidents, events, and situations, but they are so united, and so related structurally, that they form a complete whole. These various events are united in two ways.

First, they are connected with each other by the law of necessity and probability. They are probable and necessary under the circumstances, and they follow each other logically and inevitably. Thus there is a logical link-up of the various events, a sequence of cause and effect binding them together.

Secondly, they are unified by the fact that they all move forward towards a common goal, the Catastrophe aimed at by the dramatist.

The beginning leads logically and inevitably to the end, without any unnecessary digressions and episodes coming in between, without there being any detached scenes or incidents. In this way, there is unity in variety.

There are a number of events and scenes, but they all converge to a single point, logically and inevitably. Digression and episodes may be permitted in the Epic, but the drama is a compact whole from which all superfluity is rigorously excluded. The tragedy, therefore, has greater concentration, greater coherence, so greater effectiveness.

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Q.2 Write short notes on the following in about 100 words each

(i) “… This proclamation I address to all:-

Thebans, if any knows the man by whom

Laius, son of Labadacus, was slain,

I summon him to make clean shrift to me.”

 

(ii) “…What happened after that I cannot tell,

Nor how the end befell, for with a shriek

Burst on us Oedipus; all eyes were fixed

On Oedipus, as up and down he strode,

Nor could we mark her agony to the end”

Section B

Answer the following in about 350 words each:

1. Write a note on the different facets of war that is highlighted in the Iliad.

The main theme of the Iliad is stated in the first line, as Homer asks the Muse to sing of the “wrath of Achilles.” This wrath, all its permutations, transformations, influences, and consequences, makes up the themes of the Iliad.

In essence, the wrath of Achilles allows Homer to present and develop, within the cultural framework of heroic honor, the ideas of strife, alienation, and reconciliation. The wrath of Achilles is provoked by Achilles’ sense of honor as a result of eris or discord, which leads to the warrior’s alienation from the Greeks and eventually from human society. Second, the wrath of Achilles sets him up in clear contrast to his great Trojan counterpart in the story — Hektor.

Finally, the assuaging of Achilles’ wrath leads to the reconciliation and reintegration of the warrior, first into his own community and second into the larger community of all humanity. When considering these three basic ideas that result from the wrath of Achilles, readers can see a grand design in the work that centers not so much on war as on the growth and development of an individual character. BEGC 102 EUROPEAN CLASSICAL LITERATURE Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BEGC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF , BEGC 102 Solved assignment pdf , BEGC 102 Solved Assignment ,  BEGC 102 Assignment , IGNOU BEGC 102 Assignment 2022-23.

Achilles wrath is initiated by his sense of honor. Honor for the Greeks, and specifically heroes, as readers have seen, existed on different levels. First, arete: the pursuit of excellence. Second, nobility: on the personal level, men had to treat each other properly; personal regard and honor from one’s peers was essential to the proper functioning of society. Third, valor: obtained by a warrior for his accomplishments in battle. Fourth, and finally, the Greeks could obtain everlasting fame and glory for their accomplishments in life. The wrath of Achilles is based on each of these concepts.

Underlying the idea of honor is another Greek concept — strife, personified by the goddess Eris. For the Greeks, life was based on the idea of strife and turmoil. To try to avoid strife was to avoid life. A good life could be achieved by reconciling the factors that produced strife. However, war, nature, personality — everything — contained elements of strife that may not be completely reconcilable. This more elemental strife could lead to evil. Both types of strife are involved in Achilles’ anger.

In a most significant way, Achilles’ life begins with an attempt to avoid strife. His parents, the goddess Thetis and the mortal Peleus, invite all the gods to their wedding except Eris (strife). Eris, however, like the evil witch in fairy tales, attends anyway and tosses out the golden apple marked, “For the Fairest.”

Thus, strife enters at the wedding of Achilles’ parents and sets in motion the events that will ultimately lead to the Trojan War. On a more personal level, Achilles himself is an embodiment of stressful opposites. One parent is mortal; one a goddess. Consequently, he knows both mortality and immortality.

He knows he must die, but he also has a sense of the eternal. He knows that if he avoids the war he can live a long life, but that if he fights, he will die young. He knows that glory and eternal fame can be his only through early death in war while long life can be secured only by giving up the ultimate glory a Greek seeks. At first, Achilles attempts to avoid the Trojan War by pretending to be a woman; but, as in a number of instances, his attempts to avoid an action lead directly to that action.

2. Does Oedipus Rex resonate with us even today? Discuss.

Oedipus the King unfolds as a murder mystery, a political thriller, and a psychological whodunit. Throughout this mythic story of patricide and incest, Sophocles emphasizes the irony of a man determined to track down, expose, and punish an assassin, who turns out to be himself. As the play opens, the citizens of Thebes beg their king, Oedipus, to lift the plague that threatens to destroy the city. Oedipus has already sent his brother-in-law, Creon, to the oracle to learn what to do.

On his return, Creon announces that the oracle instructs them to find the murderer of Laius, the king who ruled Thebes before Oedipus. The discovery and punishment of the murderer will end the plague. At once, Oedipus sets about to solve the murder. Summoned by the king, the blind prophet Tiresias at first refuses to speak, but finally accuses Oedipus himself of killing Laius.

Oedipus mocks and rejects the prophet angrily, ordering him to leave, but not before Tiresias hints darkly of an incestuous marriage and a future of blindness, infamy, and wandering. Oedipus attempts to gain advice from Jocasta, the queen; she encourages him to ignore prophecies, explaining that a prophet once told her that Laius, her husband, would die at the hands of their son. According to Jocasta, the prophecy did not come true because the baby died, abandoned, and Laius himself was killed by a band of robbers at a crossroads.

Oedipus becomes distressed by Jocasta’s remarks because just before he came to Thebes he killed a man who resembled Laius at a crossroads. To learn the truth, Oedipus sends for the only living witness to the murder, a shepherd. Another worry haunts Oedipus. As a young man, he learned from an oracle that he was fated to kill his father and marry his mother. Fear of the prophecy drove him from his home in Corinth and brought him ultimately to Thebes.

 Again, Jocasta advises him not to worry about prophecies. Oedipus finds out from a messenger that Polybus, king of Corinth, Oedipus’ father, has died of old age. Jocasta rejoices — surely this is proof that the prophecy Oedipus heard is worthless. Still, Oedipus worries about fulfilling the prophecy with his mother, Merope, a concern Jocasta dismisses. Overhearing, the messenger offers what he believes will be cheering news. Polybus and Merope are not Oedipus’ real parents. In fact, the messenger himself gave Oedipus to the royal couple when a shepherd offered him an abandoned baby from the house of Laius.

3. Does Euclio get integrated into society at the end of the Pot of Gold? Comment.

4. Examine the satire as a genre.

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1. Write your Enrolment Number, Name, Full Address and Date on the top right corner ofthe first page of your response sheet(s).

2. Write the Course Title, Assignment Number and the Name of the Study Centre you areattached to in the centre of the first page of your response sheet(s).

3. Use only foolscap size paper for your response and tag all the pages carefully. 4. Write the relevant question number with each answer.

BEGC 102 EUROPEAN CLASSICAL LITERATURE Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BEGC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF , BEGC 102 Solved assignment pdf , BEGC 102 Solved Assignment ,  BEGC 102 Assignment , IGNOU BEGC 102 Assignment 2022-23..

Now, as a result of the lockdown and other pandemic-related rules, the institution has not only delayed the deadline for submitting IGNOU Solved Assignments, but has also created a new method for submitting them. Students now have the option of submitting IGNOU assignments online if they are unable to attend their designated centres.Thus, students now have three distinct methods for submitting IGNOU Solved Assignments based on their convenience.

Using the Offline Mode

This is the standard method via which students submit homework. Students must complete all assignment questions and then submit them to the study centre. When creating assignments, you should ensure that the very first page has all required information.

The student’s name

Enrollment number and programme code

The name, code, and address of the study centre to which you will submit the assignment

Student’s mobile phone number and email address

If you submit IGNOU Solved Assignments directly to the study centre through offline mode, the person at the study centre will provide you with a receipt that you must save until the result is declared.

Using the Online Mode

Students who are unable to attend the study centre in person to submit their IGNOU Solved Assignments can now do it online using one of these two options. It should be noted that both techniques are subject to availability at the designated regional centre.

Google Sheets

The initial way is via Google Forms. Students may access IGNOU’s regional portals and then submit their IGNOU assignments. You can successfully submit IGOU assignments using Google Form by following the instructions below.

Additionally, visit the official websites of IGNOU Regional Centers.

Step 1:To begin, consult the list of IGNOU Regional Centres on the IGNOU’s Official Website and navigate to your RC’s website.

Step 2: On the front page of RC’s official website, navigate to the News and Events area.

Step 3: You should be presented with the Assignment Guidelines or Assignment Submission options, which you must select.

Step 4: When you click the link, the Google form opens in your browser.

Step 5: Begin filling out the form with accurate information such as your name, enrollment number, and subject code.

Step 6: Carefully upload your assignment’s scanned copy and submit the form.

Follow-up Instructions

While submitting IGNOU Solved Assignments via Google Form, be careful to follow these critical requirements.

  • Each subject requires a separate form.
  • Ascertain that the assignment files are uploaded appropriately.
  • You must scan and submit the handwritten copies of the assignments.
  • Assignments should not exceed 100MB in size when scanned.
  • You should send the scanned copy only in PDF format.

While you will input the essential information on the Google Form, it is a good idea to include the same information on your IGNOU assignment copy as well.

The option to submit assignments using Google Forms will be accessible only when the email submission quota has been reached.

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Using Email Address

Though IGNOU has begun accepting assignments using Google Forms, this option will not be available in all regional centres. Google Forms will be available only if a regional center’s email quota has been exhausted and they are no longer able to receive assignment emails from students.

The following is the procedure for submitting IGNOU Solved Assignments through email.

Step 1: On the first page of your assignment, provide any pertinent information that you would include in an offline submission, such as your name, topic name and code, programme and course code, study centre name and code, and contact information.

Step 2: Scan your handwritten homework and save it as a PDF. Each PDF copy should contain a separate topic assignment.

Step 3: Conduct a Google search for the email address of your regional centre in the same manner as you did for the regional centre portal link.

Step 4: In the body of the email, provide all of the details shown on the front page of your assignments in a listicle manner.

Step 5: Attach the PDF versions of your assignments to the email and submit it to the regional center’s designated email address.

Following the email’s transmission, you should get an acknowledgement. This acknowledgement email may take a few hours to arrive. However, if you have not gotten it, you should check to see if the regional portal provided the Google Forms URL and post the assignments there as well.

Additionally, many of IGNOU’s regional centres do not email confirmation or acknowledgement following the submission of IGNOU Assignments, so you do not need to be concerned; instead, you should monitor the progress of your assignments to obtain the result.

 

  • We’d like to advice you following points to get good marks in IGNOU assignments.
  • Write in Neat and Clean Handwriting.
  • Always use A4 Distance with 1 sidelining paper

Always Attempt all the questions. Write a complete answer try to cover all the major corridor of the answer. An deficient answer distance will lead you to poor marks.

Don’t Copy paste answer from the study material handed by IGNOU; use your own words and language to answer the questions.

Don’t copy from the answer of other students. However, the assignments of similar scholars will presumably be rejected, If the School teacher noticed a copied assignment.

BEGC 102 EUROPEAN CLASSICAL LITERATURE Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BEGC 102 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF , BEGC 102 Solved assignment pdf , BEGE142 Solved Assignment ,  BEGC 102 Assignment 2022-23

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