BEGE 141 UNDERSTANDING PROSE Solved Assignment 2022-23


Section A

Q.I Write short notes on the following in about 200 words
each: 4 x 5 = 20

(i)
Simile and metaphor as figures of speech

Metaphors, similes, and analogies are three literary devices
used in speech and writing to make comparisons. Each is used in a different
way. Identifying the three can get a little tricky sometimes: for example, when
it comes to simile vs. metaphor, a simile is actually a subcategory of
metaphor, which means all similes are metaphors, but not all metaphors are
similes. Knowing the similarities and differences between metaphor, simile, and
analogy can help make your use of figurative language stronger.

Similes and
metaphors are both figures of speech that are used to make a comparison between
two things that are not alike. The difference is that similes make the
comparison by saying that something is like something else but
metaphors make the comparison by saying that something is something
else.

·       
A simile says
that one thing “is like” or “is as … as” another thing.
A metaphor says that one thing “is” another thing.
Metaphors do not use the words “like” or “as” in their
comparisons.

·       
Here
are some examples of similes:

·       
Life is
like a box of chocolates.

·       
He
was as blind as a bat without his glasses.

·       
Her
mother was as sharp as a tack. [=her mother was very smart]

·       
The
kids were fighting like cats and dogs.

·       
He
swims like a fish. [=he is a good swimmer]

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(ii)
Descriptive Prose

Descriptive prose refers to writing used to describe specific
scenes, settings, or people within a piece of prose (not poetry) writing. Such
writing is picturesque and allows readers to envision the goings on within the
writing. Such descriptive writing can occur in varying types of non-poetic
pieces of writing, like narratives, short stories, novels, or essays. In this
type of writing, descriptions are vivid. The words paint pictures in readers’
minds. Such writing must be detailed and represent the overall tone of the
work. Figurative writing and sensory details are often used in descriptive
prose.

When describing a person, you should add his physical
features and details that appeal to the reader emotionally. Again, when talking
about an object, emotions would work less, so try to appeal to the readers
physically by the use of metaphorical terms. Writing about a place means that
the place and everything around and in it should be discussed in detail so that
the reader can picture the place.

1. Use
your imagination. When you sit down for the first time to flesh out your story,
use your imagination. What do you see when you picture your main character?
Where do they live? What does their home look like? If you can visualize people
and places in your own mind, then it is easier to find the words to make them
real to your readers.

2. Use
dynamic words. To get a scene to jump off the page, create vivid descriptions
through dynamic language—choose words that have movement over words that are
static. This is especially helpful when you have to build a new world, like in
a science fiction novel.

3. Engage
a reader’s senses. Specific and concrete details are critical to
successful storytelling, and the best way to make details concrete is by
appealing to the reader’s senses. As the saying goes, “show, don’t tell.” Use
sensory detail—sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch—to describe a scene. Use
the strongest description sense for the scene. If your character is in a
gutter, smell may be more provocative than sight.

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(iii)
Speech as a form of literary expression

(iv)
Biography as a literary form.

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Section B

Q. II Answer the following questions in about 350 words
each: 4 x 7.5 = 30

1.
Write a character sketch of the mother from the story ‘Mother’.

The mother sees herself as the only person who can save her
daughter from living a life of disrespect and promiscuity. She believes the
girl has already started down this path because of the way she walks, sits, and
sings benna (Antiguan folksongs) during Sunday school, and she imparts her
domestic knowledge to keep the girl respectable. In some ways, the mother is
wise: not only does she know how to cook, clean, and keep a household, but she
also has a keen sense of social etiquette and decorum, knowing how to act
around different types of people.

For her, domestic knowledge and knowing how to interact with
people bring happiness along with respect from family and the larger community.
Her instructions suggest that community plays a large role in Antiguans’ lives
and that social standing within the community bears a great deal of weight.

Yet at the same time, there is bitterness in the mother’s
voice, and she takes her anger and frustration out on her daughter. She seems
to think that none of her wisdom will make any difference and that the girl is
already destined for a life of ill repute.
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She even repeatedly hints that the girl wants to live
promiscuously and be a “slut.” Her fears for the girl actually belie deeper
fears of the precarious state of womanhood in traditional Antiguan society.
Despite the mother’s caustic remarks and accusations, the fact that she knows
how to make abortion-inducing elixirs implies that she has had some illicit
relations with men or at least understands that such encounters sometimes
occur.

2.
What are the main features of Margaret Laurence’s speech?

3.
What is the theme of Nehru’s ‘Quest of Man’?

4.
Write a detailed note on Aitken’s prose style as seen in the two extracts from
Travels by a Lesser line.

Section C

Q. III Answer the following questions in about 600 words
each:

Q.1.
Write an appreciation of Gandhi’s art and craft of autobiography.

Gandhi’s autobiography is very different from other
autobiographies. The autobiographies normally contain self-praise by the
authors. They want to criticize their opponents and boost their own image in
the people’s eyes. Gandhi’s autobiography is completely free from all this. It
is marked with humility and truthfulness. He had not hidden anything. In fact,
he is rather too harsh on himself.
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He did not want to show to the world how good he was. He only
wanted to tell the people the story of his experiments with Truth, for Gandhi,
was the supreme principle, which includes many other principles. Realization of
the Truth is the purpose of human life.

Gandhi always strove to realize the Truth. He continuously
tried to remove impurities in himself. He always tried to stick to the Truth as
he knew and to apply the knowledge of the Truth to everyday life. He tried to
apply the spiritual principles to the practical situations. He did it in the
scientific spirit. Sticking to the truth means Satyagraha.

Gandhi therefore called his experiments as ‘Experiments with
Truth’ or ‘Experiments in the science of Satyagraha.’ Gandhi also requested the
readers to treat those experiments as illustrative and to carry out their own
experiments in that light.  

Seventy years ago, at the stroke of midnight, August 15th,
1947, Britain’s centuries-long dominion over India ceased. The terms of Indian
independence were far from ideal – as its bloody aftermath would attest – and
were the result of a rushed, highly acrimonious process. But of the numerous
complex personalities – and associated egos – involved in the fight for Indian
independence, it is the figure of Gandhi, the “Father of the Nation”, that
continues to loom largest.
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Since his death at the hands of Hindu fundamentalists in
January 1948, countless books, documentaries and films have attempted to
portray the life of the Mahatma (which, by the way, means “Great Soul”; his
given name was Mohandas); likewise, his writings, the published versions of
which run to more than 100 volumes, have been the subject of much cultural,
social, political and spiritual commentary.

Yet, despite an extremely well-documented life, little has
succeeded in dispelling the myth surrounding a man who remains, in the words of
one biographer, “as much an enigma as a person of endless fascination”. This
is, perhaps ironically, most true of his autobiography, The Story of My
Experiments with Truth.

Regarded by some as “one of the great autobiographies of
modern times” and the most widely-read of his voluminous literary output, the
autobiography spans Gandhi’s childhood on the Kathiawar Peninsula in Gujarat,
his three years studying for the bar in London and two decades dedicated to the
cause of Indian civil rights in South Africa, terminating in 1921.

Originally published in weekly installments in both his
native Gujarati and English, the text is structured around Gandhi’s
“experiments with Truth”, a series of “spiritual, or rather moral” tests –
including non-violence, celibacy and vegetarianism – through which he endeavoured
to achieve self-realisation and liberation from the cycle of reincarnation.
Though usually luring readers with promises of “warts and all” access to its
subject, autobiography has always been an act of self-creation, and hence one
of self-censorship.

Attempts to reconcile the opposing agendas of “I the
narrator” and “I the subject” are seldom successful as the necessity for
positive self-representation trumps all other concerns. Surely it isn’t so with
the saintly Gandhi, I hear you cry! I’m quite glad to say it is; contemporary
social-media users could learn a lot about shameless self-promotion from
Gandhi! The title of his autobiography illustrates not only how his
“experiments” shaped his identity, but also how this identity was self-created.

The myth of Gandhi was, initially at least, created by
Gandhi. While Gandhi tells the reader he won’t “conceal or understate any ugly
things that must be told”, it’s quickly evident that his honesty is firmly
yoked to the service of identity-construction and self-promotion. Gandhi
doesn’t show the reader who he is; he tells them.
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During the course of the text, he identifies himself with
more than 50 social roles; on the first page alone, he asserts himself as
public worker, prisoner, intellectual, writer, spiritual being and social
reformer. Generally, these roles can be apportioned to the private or public
domain, with the former including familial roles –son, brother, husband, lover
and father – along with more unorthodox domestic roles.

For example, he acted as medical adviser, nurse and, on one
occasion midwife, to his pregnant wife, and took sole care of his baby sons for
the first two months of their lives, modestly contending “My children would not
have enjoyed the general health that they do today, had I not studied the
subject and turned my knowledge to account”.

He learned to bake bread, to cut his own hair and to cobble.
He also “became an expert washerman”. Gandhi does not merely learn new skills;
he becomes a professional exponent of them. His awareness of this process of
identity-creation – and its steely purposefulness – is at times tantalisingly
glimpsed. It is little known that he was a confirmed Anglophile for much of his
life, and “vied with Englishmen in loyalty to the throne”.
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During his three-year sojourn in London, he undertook
numerous experiments in “playing the English Gentleman”. He took elocution,
French and dancing lessons; he donned “a chimney-pot hat costing nineteen
shillings”, spent “ten pounds on an evening suit made in Bond Street”, learnt
the art of tying a tie, and “wasted ten minutes every day before a huge mirror,
watching myself arranging my tie and parting my hair in the correct fashion”,
all in order to “look the thing”. This early correspondence between Gandhi’s
sartorial transformations and identity-creation is hard to miss.

Q.2. Give a detailed account of Russell’s childhood as seen
from his Autobiography.

Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born at Trelleck on 18th
May, 1872. His parents were Viscount Amberley and Katherine, daughter of 2nd
Baron Stanley of Alderley. At the age of three he was left an orphan. His
father had wished him to be brought up as an agnostic; to avoid this he was
made a ward of Court, and brought up by his grandmother. Instead of being sent
to school he was taught by governesses and tutors, and thus acquired a perfect
knowledge of French and German.
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In 1890 he went into residence at Trinity College, Cambridge,
and after being a very high Wrangler and obtaining a First Class with
distinction in philosophy he was elected a fellow of his college in 1895. But
he had already left Cambridge in the summer of 1894 and for some months was attaché
at the British embassy at Paris.

In December 1894 he married Miss Alys Pearsall Smith. After
spending some months in Berlin studying social democracy, they went to live
near Haslemere, where he devoted his time to the study of philosophy. In 1900
he visited the Mathematical Congress at Paris. He was impressed with the
ability of the Italian mathematician Peano and his pupils, and immediately
studied Peano’s works. In 1903 he wrote his first important book, The
Principles of Mathematics, and with his friend Dr. Alfred Whitehead proceeded
to develop and extend the mathematical logic of Peano and Frege.

From time to time he abandoned philosophy for politics. In
1910 he was appointed lecturer at Trinity College. After the first World War
broke out, he took an active part in the No Conscription fellowship and was
fined £ 100 as the author of a leaflet criticizing a sentence of two years on a
conscientious objector. His college deprived him of his lectureship in 1916. He
was offered a post at Harvard university, but was refused a passport. He
intended to give a course of lectures but was prevented by the military
authorities.
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In 1918 he was sentenced to six months’ imprisonment for a
pacifistic article he had written in the Tribunal. His Introduction to
Mathematical Philosophy (1919) was written in prison. His Analysis of Mind
(1921) was the outcome of some lectures he gave in London, which were organized
by a few friends who got up a subscription for the purpose. In 1920 Russell had
paid a short visit to Russia to study the conditions of Bolshevism on the spot.
In the autumn of the same year he went to China to lecture on philosophy at the
Peking university.

On his return in Sept. 1921, having been divorced by his
first wife, he married Miss Dora Black. They lived for six years in Chelsea
during the winter months and spent the summers near Lands End. In 1927 he and
his wife started a school for young children, which they carried on until 1932.
He succeeded to the earldom in 1931. He was divorced by his second wife in 1935
and the following year married Patricia Helen Spence. In 1938 he went to the
United States and during the next years taught at many of the country’s leading
universities.

In 1940 he was involved in legal proceedings when his right
to teach philosophy at the College of the City of New York was questioned
because of his views on morality. When his appointment to the college faculty
was cancelled, he accepted a five-year contract as a lecturer for the Barnes
foundation, Merion, Pa., but the cancellation of this contract was announced in
Jan. 1943 by Albert C. Barnes, director of the foundation.
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Russell was elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1908,
and re-elected a fellow of Trinity College in 1944. He was awarded the
Sylvester medal of the Royal Society, 1934, the de Morgan medal of the London
Mathematical Society in the same year, the Nobel Prize for Literature, 1950.

3.
Attempt pen portraits of both Albert and Victoria as seen in Strachey’s
biography Queen Victoria.

4.
‘On Seeing England for the First Time’ is laced with sarcasm and irony with a
thread of pathos running through it. Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer
quoting examples from the text.

 5. Describe Orwell’s experience of shooting an
elephant in Burma in detail.


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1. Write your Enrolment Number, Name, Full Address and Date on the top
right corner ofthe first page of your response sheet(s).

2. Write the Course Title, Assignment Number and the Name of the Study
Centre you areattached to in the centre of the first page of your response
sheet(s).

3. Use only foolscap size paper for your response and tag all the pages
carefully. 4. Write the relevant question number with each answer.

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Now, as a result of the lockdown and other pandemic-related
rules, the institution has not only delayed the deadline for submitting IGNOU
Solved Assignments, but has also created a new method for submitting them.
Students now have the option of submitting IGNOU assignments online if they are
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distinct methods for submitting IGNOU Solved Assignments based on their
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This is the
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Google Sheets

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Using Email Address

Though IGNOU has begun accepting assignments using Google
Forms, this option will not be available in all regional centres. Google Forms
will be available only if a regional center’s email quota has been exhausted
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The following is the procedure for submitting IGNOU Solved
Assignments through email.

Step 1: On the first page of your assignment, provide any
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your name, topic name and code, programme and course code, study centre name
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Step 2: Scan your handwritten homework and save it as a PDF.
Each PDF copy should contain a separate topic assignment.

Step 3: Conduct a Google search for the email address of your
regional centre in the same manner as you did for the regional centre portal
link.

Step 4: In the body of the email, provide all of the details
shown on the front page of your assignments in a listicle manner.

Step 5: Attach the PDF versions of your assignments to the
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Following the email’s transmission, you should get an
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However, if you have not gotten it, you should check to see if the regional
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Additionally, many of IGNOU’s regional centres do not email
confirmation or acknowledgement following the submission of IGNOU Assignments,
so you do not need to be concerned; instead, you should monitor the progress of
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  • We’d like to advice you following points to get good marks in
    IGNOU assignments.
  • Write in
    Neat and Clean Handwriting.
  • Always use A4 Distance with
    1 sidelining paper
  • Always
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    the major corridor of the answer.
    An deficient answer distance will lead you to poor marks.
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  • Don’t copy
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