BEGE 142 UNDERSTANDING DRAMA Solved Assignment 2022-23


Section A

Q.I Write short notes on the following in about 200 words
each: 4 x 5 = 20

(i)
Greek Theatre

The first time theatre truly freed itself from religious
ritual to become an art form was in Greece in the 6th century BCE when the
dithyramb was developed. This was a form of choral song chanted at festivals in
honour of Dionysus, the god of wine, fruitfulness, and vegetation. Originally,
it celebrated his rejuvenation of the earth; later, it drew on Homeric legends
for its subject matter. According to Greek tradition, the actor and playwright
Thespis invented the drama when he augmented the chorus of the dithyramb with a
single actor who wore masks to portray several different characters. With the
possibility of dialogue between the actor and the chorus, more complex themes
and modes of storytelling could be developed. In 534 BCE at Athens’s first
dramatic festival, one of Thespis’s tragedies won the prize

Thereafter, tragedies were performed annually as part of the
festival of Dionysus and of other yearly celebrations throughout the Hellenic
world. The earliest surviving texts of plays are seven tragedies by Aeschylus
dating from the first half of the 5th century BCE. Adding a second actor and
reducing the chorus from 50 to 12, Aeschylus laid the foundation for an
aesthetics of drama that was to influence subsequent plays for well over 2,000
years. Tragedy, it was considered, should deal with illustrious figures and
significant events.

The plays, which were based on legends or remote history
(though given the appearance of truth), were interpreted so as to convey some
religious, moral, or political meaning. The entire cosmos was depicted in the
drama, represented on a vertical set: above was the seat of the gods, below was
the place of exile and punishment, and in the middle was the flat circle of the
Earth, represented by the circular orchestra, where the chorus performed.
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The universal scale of Greek drama was reflected in one of
its most characteristic features, the interaction between chorus and
protagonist. The function of the chorus was to generalize the particular events
by critically observing and interpreting the action of the play. It provided,
as it were, the social background, which in turn gave resonance to the actions
of the main characters.

Sometimes the chorus would have a particular point of view
(as in Bacchae, where it represents the followers of Bacchus), while at other
times it could be the mouthpiece of the poet. Long speeches and songs made up
much of the plays, though these were made more dramatic by the dancing of the
chorus and by the stichomythia (rapid alternating of lines between
protagonists). The visual aspect of Greek tragedy was very important, a fact
that is easily forgotten, as only the words survive.

(ii)
Three Unities

Three Unities, in drama, the three principles derived by
French classicists from Aristotle’s Poetics; they require a play to have a
single action represented as occurring in a single place and within the course
of a day. These principles were called, respectively, unity of action, unity of
place, and unity of time. These three unities were redefined in 1570 by the
Italian humanist Lodovico Castelvetro in his interpretation of Aristotle, and
they are usually referred to as “Aristotelian rules” for dramatic structure. 
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Actually, Aristotle’s observations on tragedy are descriptive
rather than prescriptive, and he emphasizes only one unity, that of plot, or
action. In the French classical tragedy, the unities were adhered to literally
and became the source of endless critical polemics.

Disputes arose over such problems as whether a single day
meant 12 or 24 hours and whether a single place meant one room or one city.
Some believed that the action represented in the play should occupy no more
time than that required for the play’s performance—about two hours.

In spite of such severe restrictions, the great 17th-century
French dramatists Pierre Corneille and Jean Racine, confining the crises of
their characters’ lives to a single setting and a brief span of hours, produced
a unique form of tragedy that derives its austere power from its singleness of concentration.

The prestige of the unities continued to dominate French
drama until the Romantic era, when it was destroyed, in an evening of catcalls
and violence, with the opening of Victor Hugo’s Romantic tragedy Hernani
(1830).

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Section B

Q. II Answer the following questions in about 300
words each: 4 x 7.5 = 30

(i) ‘Chris…Chris, I did it for you, it was chance

And I took it for you. I’m sixty one years

old, when would I have another chance to make

something for you?

In Arthur Miller’s All My Sons, Joe Keller feels guilty
because he knows that he was responsible for the deaths of twenty-one pilots
during World War II, was possibly responsible for the death of his son Larry,
and his former business partner remains in prison, convicted for those deaths.
Joe has tried desperately to rationalize his actions, and his family has
heretofore stood by him, but he cannot, ultimately, escape

responsibility.

(ii)
the object of his existence is ….. as if ……. he were

there
only to fill in the gaps in the lives of

others
…… whatever other people expect of him….. or

in
whichever way they think they can use him.”

(iii)
‘With the British, we have been losers all the way –

yes
– but this is a new era. This is a new war. We

have
bled for you. We have fought your wars for

you,
against the Germans, Japanese, Italians.
.




Section C

Q. III Answer the following questions in about 800
words each:

1. Discuss the theme of social responsibility in the play All
My Sons.

All My Sons is a play by Arthur Miller and it has three-acts
in it. The major theme of this play is social responsibility. In this play
there are conflicts like family loyalties versus moral responsibility versus
social responsibility. All My Sons is a play which follows the unities of time,
place and action. This play is written based on a true story. Arthur Miller was
an American playwright and essayist. All My Sons is the one of his best known
plays. Arthur Miller in maximum of his works he brings out the theme of social
responsibility, social awareness and ethics. In this play, Arthur Miller wants
to expose that an individual’s social responsibilities are inseparable from his
personal life, that he is as responsible to society as he is to his family.

The reverse side of Miller’s relatedness argument is his
downplaying of the family as the nucleus of society. Somehow people are to feel
a more general caring for others that is not drawn off by family obligations.
What, then, is the place of the family in the larger social system? Discussions
of the family serve mostly to contrast characters’ opinions about an
individual’s responsibilities to the family versus society at large.
 
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The family is also presented as a unit that can be corrupted
and damaged by the actions and denials of its individuals, a small-scale
example of the way individual actions can corrupt society.

How do we deceive ourselves and others? We select things to
focus on in life, but do we also need to deny certain things in order to live
well? What toll does denial take on the psyche, the family, and society? Two
main facts about the Keller family history must be confronted. One is Larry’s
death, and the other is Keller’s responsibility for the shipment of defective
parts. Mother denies the first while accepting the second, and Keller accepts
the first while denying the second. The result is that both characters live in
a state of self-deception, willfully ignoring one of the truths so that the
family can continue to function in acceptable ways.

Keller argues that his actions during the war were defensible
ass requirements of good business practice. He also frequently defines himself
as an uneducated man, taking pride in his commercial success without
traditional book learning. Yet, his sound business sense actually leads to his
downfall. This failure is connected with Miller’s leftist politics and the
play’s overall criticisms (shared by some conservatives) of a capitalist system
that encourages individuals to value their business sense over their moral
sense. 
 

2. How does the Mau Mau struggle get reflected in the play The
Trial of Dedan Kimathi? Discuss.

Ngugi wa Thiong’o and Micere Githae Mugo’s historical
play The Trial of Dedan Kimathi, published for the first time in 1976,
attempts a reconstruction of the events surrounding the trial and death of
historical figure and Kenyan freedom fighter Dedan Kimathi. Kimathi, who in the
eyes of the imperial British government was a terrorist, a threat to the
imperial power, is given a new identity by Thiong’o and Mugo – one that
rehabilitates his image and depicts him as an advocate of freedom, liberty, a
voice of the Kenyan people. 
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In the preface of the play, the two playwrights surmise their
mission saying, “We agreed that the most important thing was for us to
construct imaginatively our History, envisioning the world of the Mau-Mau and
Kimathi in terms of the peasants and workers struggle before and after
independence.”

The playwrights also insist that although the play is titled
“trial”, it is not in any way “a reproduction of the farcical trial at Nyeri,”
but rather, “an imaginative recreation and interpretation of the collective
will of the Kenyan peasants and workers, in their refusal to break over sixty
years of colonial and ruthless oppression by the British ruling class.” Before
Thiong’o and Mugo’s reconstruction of the events, various perceptions of
Kimathi’s leadership and the Mau Mau struggle in general had been shaped by distorted
narratives and British propaganda.

And, as critic Sharon Ongaro notes, most information on
Kimathi’s life came from the British imperial archives, documents like school
reports, his arrest report, the court proceedings following his arrest, and
British newspaper clippings that posited him as an antagonist figure.

Therefore, exploring ideas about Dedan Kimathi, the person
and the hero, is another way of confronting the tension between Eurocentric
conceptions of history and its counterpart, a localized, imaginative version of
history.

3. How is the character of Chris contrary to that of his father
in All My Sons?

 4. Comment on the clash
of different perspectives in Halfway House.

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1. Write your Enrolment Number, Name, Full Address and Date on the top
right corner ofthe first page of your response sheet(s).

2. Write the Course Title, Assignment Number and the Name of the Study
Centre you areattached to in the centre of the first page of your response
sheet(s).

3. Use only foolscap size paper for your response and tag all the pages
carefully. 4. Write the relevant question number with each answer.

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.

How to Make an IGNOU
Assignment Submission?

Now, as a result of the lockdown and other pandemic-related
rules, the institution has not only delayed the deadline for submitting IGNOU
Solved Assignments, but has also created a new method for submitting them.
Students now have the option of submitting IGNOU assignments online if they are
unable to attend their designated centres.Thus, students now have three
distinct methods for submitting IGNOU Solved Assignments based on their
convenience.

Using the Offline Mode

This is the
standard method via which students submit homework. Students must complete all
assignment questions and then submit them to the study centre. When creating
assignments, you should ensure that the very first page has all required
information.

  • The student’s
    name
  • Enrollment
    number and programme code
  • The name,
    code, and address of the study centre to which you will submit the assignment
  • Student’s
    mobile phone number and email address

If you
submit IGNOU Solved Assignments directly to the study centre through offline
mode, the person at the study centre will provide you with a receipt that you
must save until the result is declared.

Using the Online Mode

Students who
are unable to attend the study centre in person to submit their IGNOU Solved
Assignments can now do it online using one of these two options. It should be
noted that both techniques are subject to availability at the designated
regional centre.

Google Sheets

The initial
way is via Google Forms. Students may access IGNOU’s regional portals and then
submit their IGNOU assignments. You can successfully submit IGOU assignments
using Google Form by following the instructions below.

Additionally, visit the official
websites of IGNOU Regional Centers.

Step 1:To
begin, consult the list of IGNOU Regional Centres on the IGNOU’s Official
Website and navigate to your RC’s website.

Step 2: On
the front page of RC’s official website, navigate to the News and Events area.

Step 3: You
should be presented with the Assignment Guidelines or Assignment Submission
options, which you must select.

Step 4: When
you click the link, the Google form opens in your browser.

Step 5:
Begin filling out the form with accurate information such as your name, enrollment
number, and subject code.

Step 6:
Carefully upload your assignment’s scanned copy and submit the form.

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Follow-up
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While
submitting IGNOU Solved Assignments via Google Form, be careful to follow these
critical requirements.

  • Each subject
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  • You must
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    send the scanned copy only in PDF format.

While you
will input the essential information on the Google Form, it is a good idea to
include the same information on your IGNOU assignment copy as well.

The option
to submit assignments using Google Forms will be accessible only when the email
submission quota has been reached.

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Using Email Address

Though IGNOU has begun accepting assignments using Google
Forms, this option will not be available in all regional centres. Google Forms
will be available only if a regional center’s email quota has been exhausted
and they are no longer able to receive assignment emails from students.

The following is the procedure for submitting IGNOU Solved
Assignments through email.

Step 1: On the first page of your assignment, provide any
pertinent information that you would include in an offline submission, such as
your name, topic name and code, programme and course code, study centre name
and code, and contact information.

Step 2: Scan your handwritten homework and save it as a PDF.
Each PDF copy should contain a separate topic assignment.

Step 3: Conduct a Google search for the email address of your
regional centre in the same manner as you did for the regional centre portal
link.

Step 4: In the body of the email, provide all of the details
shown on the front page of your assignments in a listicle manner.

Step 5: Attach the PDF versions of your assignments to the
email and submit it to the regional center’s designated email address.

Following the email’s transmission, you should get an
acknowledgement. This acknowledgement email may take a few hours to arrive.
However, if you have not gotten it, you should check to see if the regional
portal provided the Google Forms URL and post the assignments there as well.

Additionally, many of IGNOU’s regional centres do not email
confirmation or acknowledgement following the submission of IGNOU Assignments,
so you do not need to be concerned; instead, you should monitor the progress of
your assignments to obtain the result.

 

  • For Handwritten Assignment We’d like to advice you following points to get good marks in
    IGNOU assignments.
  • Write in
    Neat and Clean Handwriting.
  • Always use A4 Distance with
    1 sidelining paper
  • Always
    Attempt all
    the questions. Write a complete answer try to cover all
    the major corridor of the answer.
    An deficient answer distance will lead you to poor marks.
  • Don’t Copy
    paste answer from the study material handed by IGNOU; use your own words and
    language to answer the questions.
  • Don’t copy
    from the answer of other students. However, the assignments of similar scholars
    will presumably be rejected, If the School teacher noticed a copied assignment.

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