BEGE 143 UNDERSTANDING POETRY Solved Assignment 2022-23


Section A

Q.I Write short notes on the following in about 200 words
each: 4 x 5 = 20

(i) Symbol of Chinar in Daruwalla’s poem

Hawk’ has been taken from The Keeper of the Dead published in 1982. You will see that it is about how a hawk is trained as a hunting bird but you can also read it as describing human behaviour. You will notice that throughout the poem the poet has used ‘he: for the hawk giving it a kind of human identity. This bird of prey projects an image of violence that is a common pattern of behaviour in human society. You can take the hawk as a symbol of the destructive instinct in man. But you may also feel that the bird objectifies the spirit of rebellion against the established order. The poem, as you must have noticed, is divided into four sections. The opening section catches the hawk at an intense moment of killing. BEGE 143 UNDERSTANDING POETRY Solved Assignment 2022-23 the wild hawk: a powerfull bird of prey: is seen hunting other birds in the morning. It has speed it flies up in the sky it seems to drill a hole into it. Then we are made to see the world as appears to the hawk from the height. To him the land seems covered with a thin film of salt. You know that if there is too much salt in the soil: no vegetation will grow there.

Similarly: when the hawk is prowling about in the sky, no ‘grass-seed: insect: bird’ can thrive. We are told that this hawk is by hatred which is like the burning fuse of a bomb ready to go off. In the evening too: the hawk hovers ‘the groves: looking for prey. From the ground he looks like a speck but he is a speck of ‘barbed

passion’: always ready to kill. Birds like crows: mynahs or pigeons are
roosting below. When a parakeet becomes aware of the hawks presence it flies
away ‘raucously’. You will notice that by hinting at the silence of the
roosting birds and describing the noise made by a flying parakeet, the poet
creates a sense of lurking danger in the form of the hawk We feel that at any
moment: the hawk may swoop down on the birds. He has been compared to a rapist
in the harem of the sky. He picks up birds at will. As he holds a pigeon in his
talons, he scans the other birds and tries to decide which bird he will pick up
next. The wild: predatory hawk is burning with hatred which is like a cup in which
the smaller birds are the dregs’ that he scoops up. The second section
describes how a hawk is tamed. Such a hawk is much more destructive because he
has been ‘touched by the hand of man’. What does the expression mean?

These two interpretations will take your argument in two
different directions. The first interpretation will make you believe that
training leads to greater effectiveness; the other will suggest that the poet
has a rather unflattering view of the moral qualities of the modem man. The
poem then describes how a hawk is trained to hunt. The training is a painful
and frustrating experience for the hawk. His eyes are covered: ‘his eyelids are
sewn with silk’. The word ‘ sewn’ suggests the pain that the young hawk has to
go through. You must have come across the expression ‘ eagle-eyed’. 

The hawk’s
most precious possession is his remarkable eyesight but that is taken away from
him temporarily so that he can be trained. The next few lines descfibe how the
hawk is given back his sense of sight bit by bit. The poet uses the metaphor of
food when he says that ‘morsels of vision are fed to his eyes’. When the hawk
can see again, he is fully trained to kill at the command of his master

The hawk’s destructiveness is suggested when his eye is
described as ‘the eye of the storm’ The hawk then begins to hunt. He is
described as leaping up into the sky: hovering on ‘ splayed wings’ and then
suddenly plummeting ‘like a flair’ and striking the quarry in a ‘gust of
feathers’.

Notice how the poet has suggested a sense of sudden, violent
movement You will also notice that the word ‘ storm’ with which the previous
movement ended appears to anticipate ‘ gust’ in this movement. Man has made
hawking a fine art and a ritual. The section ends with the image of a hawk
being fed morsels of meat from the body of the bird he has killed.



(ii) Metaphor of death in ‘Ode to Bombay’.

Metaphor of death in ‘Ode to Bombay’. Indian English poetry
tried to emulate the western literary trends and chose to merge with what was
considered mainstream writing. In order to make a mark for itself and to be
seen as a distinct entity, Indian English poetry had to generate a new kind of
expression by turning to customs and traditions; those would be redefined and
made relevant. Linguistic skills were attended to with gusto. The formal in
writing was sought to be replaced by the popular and aggressive.

Dilip Chitre (1938-2009) was born in Vadodra, Gujarat. Although his mother
tongue was Marathi, he knew Gujarati equally well, and because of his early
education in a Jesuit school he learnt English when young. Metaphor of death in
‘Ode to Bombay’ He was well versed in Hindustani language, too, that was spoken
in a larger part of the country in the pre-independence period, Chitre attained
a comprehensive view of Indian cultures and languages owing to the different
places he stayed in his formative years. When he was twelve, his family moved
to Bombay. Exposure to many languages enabled Dilip Chitre to take up for
expression both Marathi and English. He also translated Marathi works into
English. He is best known for his translations of the Bhakti poet Tukaram.

A writer, critic, translator, and filmmaker, Chitre also
penned a novel titled Morphyus. He was a leading figure in the “Little
Magazine” movement that took shape in Marathi literature. Two things find
specific mention in Chitre’s poetry, the urban surroundings and broader social
concerns. We are struck by his stress on the modern outlook that is critical of
the mundane. He has successfully delinked himself from the values of the
National Movement. It is the emerging India that takes his attention. It is
progressive in the apparent sense.

At the same time though, the erosion of modernity in outlook
worries him. Not to shed tears for peace and harmony being targeted by the
neo-rich in the country, Chitre would have us take a position on the drift
happening towards dogma. He appears to be a misfit in his surroundings that are
pressed hard by the mighty in society.

By convention, an ode is a poem addressing a particular
person, season or place. The ode is lyrical and might be sung. It does not
follow a particular meter or rhyme scheme and is irregular in pattern. It is
made a poem by the tone the poet adopts or a picture and image the poet uses to
communicate something important for the benefit of the listener. That
description is wholly sustained by the “Ode to Bombay” in which the city with
the name Bombay is spoken to.

The poet speaker is the observer and has the city in front of
him which engages him and binds him to the place. The poem begins with the writer
making the statement “I had promised you a poem before I died.” Metaphor of
death in ‘Ode to Bombay’ The tone is personal. The question arises, why the
poet brings in the theme of death in the opening line? See the queries arising
from the mention of death. Is the poem precisely about death that may apply to
the poet, and by association to the city as well? If we move to the third line,
we note that the writer refers to his own dead feet and releases the city (you)
from there.

The sole purpose is to share with the city the loss of
quality suffered by the speaker. It is not a simple poem. The word that comes
to mind about the piano is a conscious selection of the details of the picture.
It poses problems. For instance, the piano has black keys but the poet has
turned that into blackness. To complicate it further, diamonds are shown as
storming out piece by piece. BEGE 143 UNDERSTANDING POETRY Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BEGE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF ,BEGE 143 Solved assignment pdf , BEGE142 Solved Assignment ,  BEGE 143 Assignment , IGNOU Assignment BEGE 143 , BEGE 143 Assignment Question , BEGE 145 Solved Assignment 

 The link of concerto
with the piano is logical—the instrument gives out a musical composition with
the poet’s silence being its medium. Once again though, the help is offered by
the poet as silence has a close affinity with death. Indeed, one might call the
first stanza entirely devoted to the subject of death through a metaphor that
is extended further to cover a whole variety of details in the city’s life.
Those are—bridges, bones, railway lines, dismantling of tenements or small
structures keeping company with temples, where people go to worship, and to
brothels that symbolize carnal pleasure. Imagine the vast range of the first
stanza and likewise of the city under view. All this is achieved through
deployment of the metaphor of death.

Section B

Q. II Answer the following questions in about 300
words each: 4 x 7.5 = 30

 (i) We can die by it, if
not live by love,

And if unfit for tombs and hearse

Our legend be, it will be fit for verse;

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(ii) A damsel with a dulcimer

In a vision once I saw:

It was an Abyssinian maid

And on her dulcimer she played,

BEGE 143 UNDERSTANDING POETRY Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BEGE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF ,BEGE 143 Solved assignment pdf , BEGE142 Solved Assignment ,  BEGE 143 Assignment , IGNOU Assignment BEGE 143 , BEGE 143 Assignment Question , BEGE 145 Solved Assignment 

(iii) Today my son told me

That in the meadows,

At the edge of the heavy woods

In the distance, he saw

trees of white flowers.

 

Section C

Q. III Answer the following questions in about 800
words each:

1. Discuss the structural elements in the poems ‘A Dead Baby’
and ‘A Widow’s Lament in Springtime.’

Throughout ‘The Widow’s Lament in Springtime’ by William
Carlos Williams the speaker uses an unemotional, flat tone to describe the
natural imagery that’s at the heart of this piece. The lines often feel cut
short or disjointed. A technique that is accomplished through the use of
enjambment. The themes are quite clear. They include mourning/sorrow,
life/death, and nature. BEGE 143 UNDERSTANDING POETRY Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BEGE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF ,BEGE 143 Solved assignment pdf , BEGE142 Solved Assignment ,  BEGE 143 Assignment , IGNOU Assignment BEGE 143 , BEGE 143 Assignment Question , BEGE 145 Solved Assignment 

The poet takes on the voice of a widowed woman. She describes
through symbolic images of flowers and trees the experience of her loss. Her
husband has died and now she is left in a world that once held him and does no
longer. When she thinks about the things that used to give her pleasure, like
the flowers, she turns away. Nothing is the same anymore and any flames that burn
within her are “cold” rather than warm with passion. The poem concludes with
the speaker alluding to a desire to sink into the earth and join her husband.

‘The Widow’s Lament in Springtime’ by William Carlos Williams
is a twenty-eight line elegy that is contained within one stanza of text. The
poem is written in free verse. This means that there is no standard rhyme
scheme or metrical pattern. But, that doesn’t mean the poem is completely
devoid of rhyme, rhythm, or other literary devices. This modern twist on a
pastoral elegy features a speaker using familiar images of nature to mourn the
death of her husband. The widow’s monologue is depressing and without light at
the end of the tunnel.

An oxymoron is a short phrase or compound word that uses
contradictory words to emphasize a point. For example, “cold fire” in the fifth
line of this poem. It plays into the image of the cold “flames” that are
growing this year in the widow’s yard. Another important technique commonly
used in poetry is enjambment. It occurs when a line is cut off before its
natural stopping point. Enjambment forces a reader down to the next line, and
the next, quickly. One has to move forward in order to comfortably resolve a
phrase or sentence. It can be seen throughout this poem. For example, the
transition between lines nine and ten as well as that between eleven and
twelve.

In the next lines of the ‘The Widow’s Lament in Springtime,’
the speaker describes a “plumtree” and the various blooms that are blossoming
around her. These flowers are blooming just like they used to but they don’t
bring her the pleasure that they did in the past.

They are brightly colored “yellow and some red” but her grief
is overwhelming any happiness she might’ve taken from them in the past. It is
“stronger than they”. This shows the complete transformation that her life has
undergone since this loss. She “turn[s] away forgetting” the flowers, which are
clearly a symbol of her previous happy state, and enters deeper into her new
depression.

2. Kolatkar had deployed the form of the fable to comment on
the political reality of India at the time. Discuss.

One of them is strongly rooted in the Indian culture and
reality while the other is an Indian-American poet with a global perspective.
You would note that Indian English poetry in the hands of these writers is both
political and aesthetically equipped. Each, in one’s own terms, experiments
with the poetic form to get across the central idea. Romanticism and
sentimentalism are largely kept out of the purview in their poems. While Arun
Kolatkar is more satirical, Agha Shahid Ali is intense. Their poems, however,
are thought-centric in their basic strain which adds to their appeal. Let’s
first look at the larger literary scene of the post-independence period that
would become a background against which we can place these poets.

The post-colonial period in India brought new challenges for
the people who had visualized a free and equitable society. Since the 1960s,
the dominant strain of disillusionment in Indian literature had been at its
peak. Meanwhile, the focus of Indian literature had shifted from the social
concerns to individual struggles. The poetic practice became refined as more
educated sections sprung up in Indian society—we had a growing educated young
population that looked for job opportunities and strove to achieve individual
success in all fields. This was accompanied by the urge to better one’s social
position and climb the social ladder. BEGE 143 UNDERSTANDING POETRY Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BEGE 143 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF ,BEGE 143 Solved assignment pdf , BEGE142 Solved Assignment ,  BEGE 143 Assignment , IGNOU Assignment BEGE 143 , BEGE 143 Assignment Question , BEGE 145 Solved Assignment 

As a result, a burgeoning middle class emerged in India that
was educated and intellectually evolved. It is from among this group that new
poets emerged. These new poets were well versed with English language as also
the western culture. Their readers were also the enlightened groups coming from
the middle class; they wanted to read works that represented their concerns.
Thus, reading literary works became a private affair, meant for
self-fulfillment and pleasure. It had little role to play in the
socio-political life of the time. Indeed, its area shifted from the social
space of common people to literary clubs, cafes and drawing rooms where
educated men and women sat and talked.

This shift led to a change in concerns, too. Questions of
injustice, poverty and suppression were discarded and likewise, literary
expression focused on middle class aspirations of men and women, their personal
relationships of love and marriage and disillusionment with life. But the cause
for this disillusionment would not be stretched to the social dimension; those
remained rooted in individual flaw or incapacity.

 However, this was
accompanied by a new kind of unabashed audacity particularly in poetry that
looked critically at the spiraling growth of capitalism in the country. Both
the writers discussed in this unit fall in this latter category

3. Analyse Jyoti Lanjewar’s poetry as the voice of protest.

4. Analyse the relationship between Santhal writing and nature
from her poems you have read in your block.

BEGE 143 UNDERSTANDING POETRY Solved Assignment 2022-23 , IGNOU BEGE
143 Solved Assignment 2022-23 Download PDF ,BEGE 143 Solved assignment pdf ,
BEGE142 Solved Assignment ,  BEGE 143 Assignment 2022-23

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